Agitation commonly affects older adults, particularly those living in care homes and in hospital settings. Agitation can be distressing to experience, may be associated with poorer health outcomes and can present a challenge to staff in keeping the person and those around them safe. This learning module examines why agitation can occur in older people and discusses current best practice, focusing on communication and non-pharmaceutical interventions. Agitation is commonly associated with dementia and delirium. This module indicates how these conditions can affect the older person and their interactions with the surrounding environment. A case study is used to illustrate application in practice.